Hyperthyroidism is when your thyroid gland, located at the front of your neck, produces too much thyroid hormone, causing your metabolism to speed up. Hyperthyroidism has three forms that share several symptoms. The most common form is Graves disease. Hyperthyroidism can also be caused by taking too much thyroid hormone when you are being treated for hypothyroidism. Hyperthyroidism is more common in women than men and usually occurs between the ages of 20 - 40. It often starts after times of extreme stress or during pregnancy.

Signs and Symptoms:

Rapid heart rate and palpitations
Shortness of breath
Goiter (swelling of the thyroid gland)
Moist skin and increased perspiration
Shakiness and tremor
Increased appetite accompanied by weight loss
Swollen, reddened, and bulging eyes (in Graves disease)
Occasionally, raised, thickened skin over the shins, back of feet, back, hands, or even face
In crisis: fever, very rapid pulse, agitation, and possibly delirium
Changes in menstrual periods.

What Causes It?:

Researchers suspect that Graves disease (the most common form of hyperthyroidism) is caused by an antibody that mistakenly stimulates the thyroid to produce too much hormone. Toxic nodular goiter is caused by a noncancerous tumor in nodules that make up the thyroid gland. Secondary hyperthyroidism results when a gland called the pituitary overrides the thyroid's normal instructions, and orders it to make too much thyroid hormone.

What to Expect at Your Provider's Office:

Your health care provider will ask you to extend your fingers to see if you have a telltale tremor. Your health care provider will also examine your thyroid gland while you swallow. A blood test can confirm that you have elevated levels of thyroid hormone. Your doctor may also order a radioactive iodine uptake test to determine why your thyroid is producing too much hormone.

Treatment Options:

Drug Therapies:

Your health care provider will most likely prescribe a single dose of liquid radioactive iodine, which calms down your thyroid gland. Often the thyroid then becomes underactive. If so, you may have to take replacement thyroid hormone. Alternatively, your health care provider may give you thyroid-depressive medication. You may also be prescribed beta-blockers to help slow a rapid heartbeat. If drug treatment fails, you may need surgery to remove part of your thyroid. If so, you will need to take replacement thyroid hormone.
Complementary and Alternative Therapies

Alternative therapies may be effective at minimizing symptoms of mild thyroid dysfunction.

Nutrition and Supplements:

Following these nutritional tips may help reduce symptoms:
Eliminate suspected food allergens, such as dairy (milk, cheese, and ice cream), wheat (gluten), soy, corn, preservatives, and chemical food additives. Your health care provider may want to test you for food allergies.
Eat foods high in B-vitamins and iron, such as whole grains (if no allergy), fresh vegetables, and sea vegetables.
Avoid foods that interfere with thyroid function, including broccoli, cabbage, brussels sprouts, cauliflower, kale, spinach, turnips, soybeans, peanuts, linseed, pine nuts, millet, cassava, and mustard greens.
If you take thyroid hormone medications, talk to your doctor before consuming soy products. There is some evidence soy may interfere with absorption of thyroid hormone.
Iron may also interfere with the absorption of thyroid hormone medication.
Eat antioxidant foods, including fruits (such as blueberries, cherries, and tomatoes) and vegetables (such as squash and bell pepper).
Avoid refined foods, such as white breads, pastas, and sugar.
Eat fewer red meats and more lean meats, cold-water fish, or beans for protein. Limit your intake of processed meats, such as fast foods and lunch meats.
Use healthy cooking oils, such as olive oil or vegetable oil.
Reduce or eliminate trans-fatty acids, found in commercially baked goods such as cookies, crackers, cakes, French fries, onion rings, donuts, processed foods, and margarine.
Avoid alcohol, and tobacco. Talk to your doctor before using caffeine containing products, such as teas and soft drinks.Caffeine impacts several conditions and medications.
Exercise, if possible, 30 minutes daily, 5 days a week.

You may address nutritional deficiencies with the following supplements:
A multivitamin daily, containing the antioxidant vitamins A, C, E, the B-complex vitamins, and trace minerals such as magnesium, calcium, zinc and selenium.
Omega-3 fatty acids, such as fish oil, 1 - 2 capsules or 1 - 2 tbs. of oil daily, to help decrease inflammation and help with immunity.
Vitamin C, 500 - 1,000 mg daily, as an antioxidant and for immune support.
Alpha-lipoic acid, 25 - 50 mg twice daily, for antioxidant support.
L-carnitine, 500 - 2,000 mg daily, for decreasing thyroid activity.
Probiotic supplement (containing Lactobacillus acidophilus), 5 - 10 billion CFUs (colony forming units) a day, when needed for maintenance of gastrointestinal and immune health. Some acidophilus products may need refrigeration -- read labels carefully.
Do not take an iodine supplement unless directed by your doctor. Iodine is only effective in cases of iodine deficiency, which is uncommon in the developed world. And excessive iodine can cause hypothyroidism.


Herbs are generally a safe way to strengthen and tone the body's systems. As with any therapy, you should work with your health care provider to get your problem diagnosed before starting any treatment. You may use herbs may as dried extracts (capsules, powders, teas), glycerites (glycerine extracts), or tinctures (alcohol extracts). People with a history of alcoholism should not take tinctures. Unless otherwise indicated, teas should be made with 1 tsp. herb per cup of hot water. Steep covered 5 - 10 minutes for leaf or flowers, and 10 - 20 minutes for roots. Drink 2 - 4 cups per day. You may use tinctures singly or in combination as noted.
Green tea (Camellia sinensis) standardized extract, 250 - 500 mg daily, for antioxidant effects. Use caffeine-free products.
Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis), 300 - 500 mg three times daily, for thyroid support, helps to normalize an overactive thyroid. Steep lemon balm, 2 tbs. in one cup of boiling water. Strain and cool.
Avoid the following herbs as they may stimulate hyperthyroidism: ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) and bladderwrack (Fucus vesiculosus). Also avoid stimulating herbs, such as caffeinated green tea products and Chinese or Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng).


Few studies have examined the effectiveness of specific homeopathic therapies, professional homeopaths may consider remedies for the treatment of symptoms based on their knowledge and experience. Before prescribing a remedy, homeopaths take into account your constitutional type -- your physical, emotional, and psychological makeup. An experienced homeopath assesses all of these factors when determining the most appropriate treatment for you individually.

Physical Medicine:

Castor oil packs to the throat will also reduce inflammation. Apply oil to a clean, soft cloth, place on the throat and cover in plastic wrap. Place a heat source over the pack and let it sit for 30 - 60 minutes. For best results, use for 3 consecutive days.

Acupuncture may help correct hormonal imbalances.

Therapeutic massage may help relieve stress.

Special Considerations:
Thyroid problems during pregnancy can cause serious complications.

Alternative Names:
Thyroid - overactive

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